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Chipotles chilies [chee-POT-tleh] peppers are smoked jalapeno chili peppers and are
also known as chili ahumado. These chilies are usually a dull tan to coffee color and
measure approximately 2 to 4 inches in length and about an inch wide. As much as one
fifth of the Mexican jalapeno crop is processed into chipotles. Heat Scale
Most of the natural 'heat' of the jalapeno is retained in the drying process. Typically it is
about 5,000 to 10,000 Scoville Units. This is considered a "medium" heat in comparison to
other chilies.

Paprika is a spice made from the grinding of dried sweet red bell peppers (Capsicum
annuum). In many European countries the name paprika also refers to bell peppers
themselves. The seasoning is used in many cuisines to add colour and flavour to dishes.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word comes from the Hungarian "paprika",
which derives from the Serbian "paprena", which means "the one that is hot" and it is
derived from Serbian adjective papar "pepper" which in turn was borrowed from the Latin
"piper", for "pepper."

Garlic is widely used around the world for its pungent flavor, as a seasoning or condiment.
The flavour varies in intensity and aroma with cooking methods. It is often paired with
onion, tomato, or ginger. The parchment-like skin is much like the skin of an onion, and is
typically removed before using in raw or cooked form. An alternative is to cut the top off
the bulb, coat cloves of garlic by dribbling olive oil (or other oil based seasoning) over
them and roast them in the oven. The garlic softens and can be extracted from the cloves
by squeezing the (root) end of the bulb or individually by squeezing one end of the clove.

Black pepper gets its spicy heat mostly from the piperine compound, which is found both
in the outer fruit and in the seed. Refined piperine, milligram-for-milligram, is about one
percent as hot as the capsaicin in chile peppers. The outer fruit layer, left on black
pepper, also contains important odour-contributing terpenes including pinene, sabinene,
limonene, caryophyllene, and linalool, which give citrusy, woody, and floral notes. These
scents are mostly missing in white pepper, which is stripped of the fruit layer. White pepper
can gain some different odours (including musty notes) from its longer fermentation

Cayenne is a hot red chili pepper used to flavor dishes, and for medicinal purposes.
Named for the city of Cayenne in French Guiana, it is a cultivar of Capsicum annuum
related to bell peppers, jalapeños, and others. The capsicum genus is in the nightshade
family (Solanaceae).The fruits are generally dried and ground, or pulped and baked into
cakes, which are then ground and sifted to make the powder, Cayenne pepper. Cayenne
is used in cooking spicy hot dishes, as a powder or in its whole form (such as in Szechuan
cuisine) or in a thin, vinegar-based sauce. It is generally rated at 30,000 to 50,000 Scoville
Units. It is also used as a herbal supplement, and was mentioned by Nicholas Culpeper in
his Complete Herbal.

Cumin can be used to season many dishes, as it draws out their natural sweetnesses. It is
traditionally added to curries, enchiladas, tacos, and other Middle-eastern, Indian, Cuban
and Mexican-style foods. It can also be added to salsa to give it extra flavour. Cumin has
also been used on meat in addition to other common seasonings. The spice is a familiar
taste in Tex-Mex dishes and is extensively used in the cuisines of the Indian subcontinent.
Cumin was also used heavily in ancient Roman cuisine.

Rosemary, The fresh and dried leaves are used frequently in traditional Mediterranean
cuisine as a herb; they have a bitter, astringent taste, which compliments a wide variety of
foods. A tisane can also be made from them. They are extensively used in cooking, and
when burned give off a distinct mustard smell, as well as a smell similar to that of burning
which can be used to flavor foods while barbecueing. Rosemary is extremely high in iron,
calcium, and Vitamin B6.[1]  Since it is attractive and tolerates some degree of drought, it
is also used in landscaping, especially in areas having a Mediterranean climate. It is
considered easy to grow for beginner gardeners, and is pest-resistant.
Rosemary is easily pruned into shapes and has been used for topiary. When grown in
pots, it is best kept trimmed to stop it getting too straggly and unsightly, though when
grown in a garden, rosemary can grow quite large and still be attractive. It can be
propagated from an existing plant by clipping a shoot 10-15 cm long, stripping a few
leaves from the bottom, and planting it directly into soil.

Tarragon has an aromatic property reminiscent of anise, due to the presence of
estragole. French tarragon is the variety generally considered best for the kitchen, but
cannot be grown from seed. Russian tarragon (A. dracunculoides L.) can be grown from
seed but is much weaker in flavour. However, Russian tarragon is a far more hardy and
vigorous plant, spreading at the roots and growing over a meter tall. This tarragon actually
prefers poor soils and happily tolerates drought and neglect. It is not as strongly aromatic
and flavoursome as its French cousin, but it produces many more leaves from early spring
onwards that are mild and good in salads and cooked food. The young stems in early
spring can be cooked as a tasty asparagus substitute. Grow indoors from seed and plant
out in the summer. Spreading plant can be divided easily. Tarragon is one of the four fines
herbes of French cooking, and particularly suitable for chicken, fish and egg dishes.
Tarragon is one of the main components of Bearnaise sauce.

Chives are grown for their leaves, which are used for culinary purposes as condiment,
which provide a somewhat milder flavour than its neighbouring Allium species. Chives have
a wide variety of culinary uses, such as in traditional dishes in France[10] and Sweden[11],
among others. In his 1806 book Attempt at a Flora (Försök til en flora), Retzius describes
how chives are used with pancakes, soups, fish and sandwiches.[11] It is also an
ingredient of the gräddfil sauce served with the traditional herring dish served at Swedish
midsummer celebrations. The flowers may also be used to garnish dishes. [12] Chives are
one of the "fines herbes" of French cuisine, which also include tarragon, chervil and/or
parsley. Chives can be found fresh at most markets year-round, making it a readily
available spice herb; it can also be dry-frozen without much impairment to its taste, giving
home growers the opportunity to store large quantities harvested from their own garden.[

Onions are available in fresh, frozen, canned, pickled, and dehydrated forms. Onions can
be used, usually chopped or sliced, in almost every type of food, including cooked foods
and fresh salads, and as a spicy garnish; they are rarely eaten on their own but usually
act as accompaniment to the main course. Depending on the variety, an onion can be
sharp, spicy, tangy and pungent or mild and sweet. Onions pickled in vinegar are eaten as
a snack. These are often served as a side serving in fish and chip shops throughout the
United Kingdom. Onions are a staple food in India, and are therefore fundamental to
Indian cooking. They are commonly used as a base for curries, or made into a paste and
eaten as a main course or as a side dish. Tissue from onions is frequently used in science
education to demonstrate microscope usage, because they have particularly large cells
which are readily observed even at low magnifications.[

Celery Salt is used as a seasoning, in cocktails (notably to enhance the flavour of Bloody
Mary cocktails), on the Chicago-style hot dog, and in Old Bay Seasoning.  Celery is one of
three vegetables considered the holy trinity (along with onions and bell peppers) of
Louisiana Creole and Cajun cuisine. It is also one of the three vegetables (together with
onions and carrots) that constitute the French mirepoix, which is often used as a base for
sauces and soups.

Iodized salt (BrE: iodised salt) is table salt mixed with a minute amount of potassium
iodide, sodium iodide, or iodate. Iodized salt is used to help reduce the chance of iodine
deficiency in humans. Iodine deficiency commonly leads to thyroid gland problems,
specifically endemic goiter. Endemic goiter is a disease characterized by a swelling of the
thyroid gland, usually resulting in a bulbous protrusion on the neck. While only tiny
quantities of iodine are required in a diet to prevent goiter, the United States Food and
Drug Administration recommends (21 CFR 101.9 (c)(8)(iv)) 150 micrograms of iodine per
day for both men and women, and there are many places around the world where natural
levels of iodine in the soil are low and the iodine is not taken up by vegetables.

Allspice is one of the most important ingredients of Caribbean cuisine. It is used in
Caribbean jerk seasoning (the wood is used to smoke jerk in Jamaica, although the spice
is a good substitute), in mole sauces, and in pickling; it is also an ingredient in commercial
sausage preparations and curry powders. Allspice is also indispensable in Middle Eastern
cuisine, particularly in the Levant where it is used to flavor a variety of stews and meat
dishes. In Palestinian cuisine, for example, many main dishes call for allspice as the sole
spice added for flavoring. In America, it is used mostly in desserts, but it's also responsible
for giving Cincinnati-style chili its distinctive aroma and flavor as well. Allspice is commonly
used in Great Britain and appears in many dishes, including in cakes. Even in many
countries where allspice is not very popular in the household, such as Germany, it is used
in large amounts by commercial sausage makers. Allspice is also a main flavor used in
barbecue sauces.[citation needed]
Allspice is not, as is mistakenly believed by some people who have only come across it in
ground form, a mixture of spices. Rather, it is the dried fruit of the Pimenta dioica plant.
The fruit is picked when it is green and unripe and traditionally dried in the sun. When dry
the fruits are brown and resemble large brown peppercorns.

Allspice is most commonly sold as whole dried fruits or as a powder. The whole fruits have
a longer shelf-life than the powdered product and produce a more aromatic product when
freshly ground before use. Fresh leaves are also used where available: they are similar in
texture to bay leaves and are thus infused during cooking and then removed before
serving. Unlike bay leaves, they lose much flavour when dried and stored. The leaves and
wood are often used for smoking meats where allspice is a local crop. Allspice can also be
found in essential oil form.

Bay leaves are a fixture in the cooking of many European cuisines (particularly those of
the Mediterranean), as well as in North America. They are used in soups, stews, meat,
seafood, and vegetable dishes. The leaves also flavor classic French dishes such as
bouillabaise and bouillon. The leaves are most often used whole (sometimes in a bouquet
garni), and removed before serving. In Indian cuisine, bay leaves are often used in biryani
and many salans.

Bay leaves can also be crushed (or ground) before cooking. Crushed bay leaves impart
more of their desired fragrance than whole leaves, and there is less chance of biting into a
leaf directly.

ginger rhizomes are juicy and fleshy with a very mild taste. They are often pickled
in vinegar or sherry as a snack or just cooked as an ingredient in many dishes. They can
also be stewed in boiling water to make ginger tea, to which honey is often added as a
sweetener; sliced orange or lemon fruit may also be added. Mature ginger roots are
fibrous and nearly dry. The juice from old ginger roots is extremely potent and is often
used as a spice in Chinese cuisine to flavor dishes such as seafood or mutton. Powdered
dry ginger root (ginger powder) is typically used to add spiciness to gingerbread and other
recipes. Ground and fresh ginger taste quite different and ground ginger is a poor
substitute for fresh ginger. Fresh ginger can be successfully substituted for ground ginger
and should be done at a ratio of 6 parts fresh for 1 part ground. Ginger is also made into
candy and used as a flavoring for cookies, crackers and cake, and is the main flavor in
ginger ale-- a sweet, carbonated, non-alcoholic beverage, as well as the similar, but
somewhat spicier beverage ginger beer.

Nutmeg and mace have similar taste qualities, nutmeg having a slightly sweeter and mace
a more delicate flavour. Mace is often preferred in light-coloured dishes for the bright
orange, saffron-like colour it imparts. Nutmeg is a flavorful addition to cheese sauces and
is best grated fresh (see nutmeg grater). In Indian cuisine, nutmeg powder is used almost
exclusively in sweet dishes. It is known as Jaiphal in most parts of India. It may also be
used in small quantities in garam masala. Ground nutmeg is also smoked in India.[citation

In Middle Eastern cuisine, nutmeg powder is often used as a spice for savoury dishes. In
Arabic, nutmeg is called Jawz at-Tiyb.

In European cuisine, nutmeg and mace are used especially in potato dishes and in
processed meat products; they are also used in soups, sauces and baked goods. In Dutch
cuisine nutmeg is quite popular, it is added to vegetables like Brussels sprouts, cauliflower
and string beans.

Japanese varieties of curry powder include nutmeg as an ingredient.

A Norwegian bun called kavring includes nutmeg.

Nutmeg is a traditional ingredient in mulled cider, mulled wine, and eggnog.

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